Article - November 2003
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Unconventional Design Guide for High Performance HVAC Hydronics Systems

Proven solutions to optimize hot and chilled water system performance.

Paul Skoglund


Paul Skoglund, President 
Flow Control Industries Inc.

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In the HVAC industry, many large heating and cooling systems suffer from excess flow, wasted energy, limited available capacity, and thermal instability due to poor hot and chilled water distribution system performance. Millions of dollars are spent every year by countless facilities attempting to address "low delta T syndrome" issues. At the same time, if space temperature and humidity control is maintained, many of these problems get overlooked.

Achieving excellent part load performance is particularly challenging when systems are typically designed to manage peak loads. More efficient chillers, additional pumps, larger pipes, thermal energy storage, variable speed drives, and software controls are commonly implemented fixes that seldom get to the root of excess flow, low delta T problems. Even brand new facilities suffer with high energy cost and poor performance for the life of the building when the hydronics system is designed using a standard approach and conventional, commercial quality hardware.

Proven alternatives exist that simplify engineering design and system control, mechanically tune the flow to the load, reduce capital and operating expenses and ensure optimum system energy performance. The following guide entitled DeltaPValve System Design Manual - The Complete Variable Flow System Approach to HVAC Hydronics, is intended to help engineers design high performance systems.


Paul Skoglund is the founder and president of Flow Control Industries Inc. ( He is a mechanical engineering graduate of the University of Washington (1968) and a licensed professional engineer in the states of Alaska, Washington, and Oregon. He has over 35 years experience in the HVAC industry and holds 11 patents. Flow Control's growing HVAC customer base includes some of the most prominent Universities, Laboratories, Hospitals, Airports and other facilities across the country.

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