Innovations in Comfort, Efficiency, and Safety Solutions.
ESCO 2.0 and Your Next Project
In terms of a business model focusing on implementation of efficiency, renewable energy resources, and financing vehicles for capital upgrade projects, the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model is seeing a resurgence among building owners.
Jack Mc Gowan, President,
Energy Control Inc. (ECI)
Leighton Wolffe, Principal
Wolffe Technology Group LLC
Previously in Engineered Systems, Leighton Wolffe presented ideas and perspectives on high performance buildings and the convergence of the IT, Energy and Building Technology industries in the new smart grid environment. In this article, Leighton and Jack McGowan team up to provide insight on how facility owners can make sense of the many energy related services and programs to help finance capital improvement projects and infrastructure upgrades to achieve high performance buildings and campuses.
facility professionals every mechanism to make capital improvement
projects a reality is worthy of attention. However, this has become a
rather complicated formula to master; with the array of vendors, energy
suppliers, service providers, demand response companies, dashboards and
analytics programs, and building automation manufacturers all claiming
to be the key component when it comes to providing comprehensive
benefits and improvements to operations and energy.
While each element of the energy equation is important, questions immediately start to arise such as:
These are just a
few of the considerations important to the stakeholders responsible for
finance, operations, energy procurement, labor negotiations, risk and
life safety, contract management, and other departments in facilities
that influence and drive the decisioning process.
As every facility
manager knows, without an adequate operating budget, it isn’t possible
to maintain buildings and equipment. Hand in hand with the operating
budget is capital, which is harder to assemble in this economic
climate, but must be available to renew and upgrade infrastructure. In
this complex environment, building owners are constrained, but open to
proven business models that can have positive impacts on both
budgets. Using traditional channels, the justification and
approval process to get funding is a time consuming and multi-hoop
endeavor even in the best of times. Elevating a typical building to
“high performance” is an even more complex undertaking that requires
sophisticated interoperability between dissimilar equipment and
A basic dilemma faced by owners is choosing between maintaining a legacy system or moving to high-performance technologies to replace equipment. The economics that support this decision process are not as clear or well defined as the simple ROI we are all used to – Efficiencies and avoided costs after project installation equals savings that pay for the project.
When the concept
of implementing smartgrid technology is introduced, the issues around
justifying expenditures increase. When renewable energy and distributed
generation resources become part of the project scope, the complexities
around financial modeling become exponential.
It seems that most
vendors can only offer slices of the project, and that price and cost
of aligning multiple vendors together can quickly outweigh the benefits.
Accordingly, a number of companies that serve this space are looking at providing more end to end solutions and are starting to offer software and hardware applications that serve the entire energy chain from supply side power purchasing to demand side load control, energy efficiency measures and capital asset management. With all of these options, the questions become “ Who is the prime vendor, what technologies do we use, how does this all fit together, and how are we going to pay for it?
In terms of a
business model focusing on implementation of efficiency, renewable
energy resources, and financing vehicles for capital upgrade projects,
the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model is seeing a resurgence among
building owners. This is particularly true for owners that have
scarce capital and marginal credit ratings. That said, Energy
Services is a broad topic and includes a wide range of offerings, but
at its heart the model entails a combination of three critical
elements. Those elements are: 1) engineering self-funding energy
measures, 2) financing based upon a revenue stream (typically from
savings that are calculated and, in some cases, guaranteed and 3)
implementation. During this time of continuing stress on capital
project funding, Energy Services is seeing an evolution in its
financing optionalities, beyond the “plain vanilla” versions,
increasingly towards what is becoming known as ESCO 2.0.
ESCO 2.0 is a
variation on the proven theme that has been called Performance
Contracting over the past three decades. The “2.0” is an
outgrowth of Web 2.0, which according to Wikipedia “is a loosely
defined intersection of web application features that facilitate
participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered
design, and collaboration on the World Wide scale.”
With ESCO 2.0, access to the Web is critical, but the “application
features” in this case are designed to access new revenue streams and
create larger more exciting capital projects. So the ESCO 2.0
phenomenon seems to be upon us, and forward looking companies have
embraced it by incorporating Smart Grid and Demand response strategies
to tap into positive cash flow revenue stream that is creating a 2.0
self-funding matrix. Of course Energy Service Companies or
“ESCO’s” are those organizations that specialize in delivering this
model, but of course all ESCO’s are not created equal.
This article is intended to reacquaint the reader with the complex topic of Energy Services, and to cover some of the evolution that has occurred in recent years. If the reader has not kept abreast of those changes, it is time to do so, because it could make the difference between go and no-go on your next project. We will revisit the history of Energy Services or Performance Contracting, address current ESCO Best Practices and describe the Next Gen ESCO 2.0 models that are a best kept secret.
Energy Services may be one of the most exciting concepts to hit the energy and buildings business over the last several decades. Yet this business model, and the industry that it spawned, has experienced many transitions over that time and recent studies of Performance Contracting, combined with general observations of trends, indicate that many projects are doomed to languish without it. Equally important, energy services is poised for a next wave that will be characterized by broader forms of both technology applied and financing approaches used. Integral to these new elements with be traditional efficiency coupled with Demand Response using the OpenADR Standards to leverage more Smart Grid Functionality, which will contributed more dollars to the financing pool. Before exploring all of these developments however, it may be helpful to revisit the origins of this model. Energy Services seems a timely topic, but the model itself has been around for decades. This method of implementing energy, and Capital, projects originated in Europe after World War II, when it was called “chauffage.” Chauffage means “heat” in French, but at that time the idea was to address two major challenges: the need to rebuild and renew capital infrastructure that was ravaged during the war years, and the need to control astronomical energy costs for building owners. Chauffage was a solution that provided building owners with energy sources, delivered by a third party that turn keyed the engineering, facility management and financing for projects. At the same time, the model provided entrepreneurs with the opportunity to convert the risk associated with building renewal into a viable business opportunity. The term win-win could be used because building owners got problems fixed, investors made money and the workforce got jobs
The concept of
Energy Services or Performance Contracting came to the U.S. in the late
1970’s under a different name “shared savings”. Shared savings is
a concept that has seen some resurgence recently, in the form of Power
Purchase Agreements (PPAs) for renewable energy. Uncertainty in
the energy markets, impacted by dramatic changes in oil / gas supply
and energy price drops in the mid-1980’s, resulted in changes to the
model. As a result of unpredictable price volatility, the
industry decided that it would exit the business of speculating on
energy futures and focus on engineering of self-funding
projects. As a result the Energy Services mode developed,
sometimes referred to as performance contracting. This is usually
where a story reads, “And the rest is history.” However, that’s not the
case for performance contracting because new electricity programs from
Rebates to Demand Response are positioning the industry to enter a new
A key point with performance contracting is that the ultimate technology limiters have to do with energy cost and the enabling legislation in a particular state. (Readers who want to learn more about enabling legislation in specific states may start by visiting; http://www.dsireusa.org and clicking on the states of interest.) Critical aspects of the legislation, such as the term (number of years) that is enabled for such agreements and the types of energy measures that are allowed, will define the technologies that can be implemented. By the same token, the local cost of energy (particularly electricity), and the presence of utility rebates are also factors.
In addition to the site above there are a number of other sites containing a wealth of information available over the Internet. Two Web sites that include great data on performance contracting are for; the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NASECO), http://www.naesco.org/index.htm and the Energy Service Coalition (ESC) http://www.escperform.org/. NAESCO, the major ESCO trade association, has a Web site offering information to better understand the process, the pitfalls and answers to many other questions. NAESCO, ESC and the Association of Energy Engineers offer Web resources and sponsor seminars throughout the year. The ESC is a national nonprofit organization composed of experts from wide ranging organizations working, at state and local levels, to increase the number building energy upgrades completed through performance contracting. This organization also offers sample documents like Request for Proposals or performance contract documents. The ESC Web site also has list of providers and other industry professionals. The LBNL study also has good basic information and it may be downloaded at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/EMS_pubs.html.
The Next Wave
The adoption of IT related nomenclature to describe Next Generation Buildings
represents awareness that buildings are huge consumers of energy,
particularly electricity. Among many important data points is
buildings make up as much as half of electricity consumption in the
US. Energy Information Administration (EIA) puts buildings at 17%
of US energy consumption overall, but buildings alone account for 35%
of electric consumption, thus the building industry is very important
to electricity companies. On the flipside, EIA data also
indicates that electricity represents 75% of the energy bill for
commercial buildings, and presents some real impact on occupants in a
number of ways. Power outages decimate productivity, according to
EPRI they cost US businesses $80 billion per year and detract from
comfort and environmental safety by interrupting HVAC.
energy cost metric, the first ESCO wave completely focused on
efficiency and third party financing, but this next iteration will
address new funding opportunities from the other side of the meter.
McGowan coined the term “Electricity Capital” to address this new
category of funding opportunities. Electricity Capital is relatively
new as Electric utilities across the country are creating all sorts of
mechanisms to promote implementation of buildings energy
projects. There are a host of drivers including: Renewable
Portfolio Standards, Commission Mandates, forecasts that predict
electricity demand to grow as economic recovery unfolds, etc.
One example is
that a number of utilities, both electric and gas, offer on-bill
financing for efficiency projects including BAS. Quite simply the
building owner may be able to finance a building automation or other
efficiency measure on the utility bill. Similarly Property
Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) has been reborn offering funding to
building owners for such improvements by increasing their property
tax. These programs, along with a resurgence of interest in
energy, coupled with scarce capital from traditional sources have led
to more alternative financing models like Energy Services.
Many ESCO’s are teaming with Smart Grid and utility rebate experts to provide turn-key solutions. Of course many building automation manufacturers are already ESCO’s, but more contractors are also adopting this model all the time. At the heart of all these new trends are smart building technology and “cloud” based software applications to enable the building to save more and fund projects, as well as perform analytics that are necessary to validate the performance.
Electricity Capital comprises programs like Demand Response (DR) that pays customers to respond to curtailment events through deployment of strategies in the BAS to shed load. OpenADR™ is the standard developed at Lawrence Berkley Labs, which many are aware of, but exhibitors at far ranging events including: AHR Expo, Niagara Summit, Realcomm/IBcon and the World Energy Engineering Congress are touting their ability to integrate OpenADR into BAS just like BACnet™ or LON™. Some manufacturers provide pre-programmed Demand Response Algorithms, working with customers to deploy DR creating a revenue stream to fund a BAS. One DR provider has completed projects with multi-location customers that are paying for DR enablement and a new BAS with Electricity Capital. Under this model the owner gets technology installed with no upfront cost and is able to finance the deployment and repay it through DR payments from the utility over time. Stay tuned because Electricity Capital will grow to include a wide range of additional funding mechanisms for the savvy owner and provider.
With ESCO 1.0 no
one disputes that efficiency investments made by building owners are
“bankable” and cost effective. These investments also help
utilities, but only with one of their two concerns. When
considering electricity, there are two important topics; energy use and
energy demand. Efficiency helps utilities with energy use and it
makes sense to optimize building energy consumption because it reduces
operating cost. Electric demand growth and emerging electricity
markets present new utility concerns, and most building owners are
unaware of the financial benefits they can offer. Those managers
with graying temples remember demand limiting, etc. from the 1980’s,
but that is just part of the story. It is a shock that 25% of the
multibillion dollar electric infrastructure (power plants, transmission
and distribution lines, etc.) exists to keep the lights on for just
~100 hours/year of peak demand. That’s because the monopolistic
electricity business model traditionally sets one price for units of
power, $ / KWh, no matter when it is consumed. The Demand Charge,
$ / KW, is applied to commercial bills, but that does not begin to
match wholesale electric price volatility before, during and after
periods of peak electric use.
ESCO 2.0 is about tapping into fees that utilities are willing to pay the owner for developing strategies to support the utility in keeping the lights on. ESCO projects have typically generated two types of savings; “energy” and “operations and maintenance, the 2.0 with generate a new type cash flow that is not “savings” but “income”. Demand Response is an early example of this income that has been widely embraced, but that is just the beginning. Utilizing the same technology that has been put in place to enable demand response, many electricity users have begun to offer capacity back to the grid at peak times… for a price. The price is income. In summary, these Income strategies combined Savings strategies can create the opportunity for larger and more exciting ESCO projects.
A key point that can be overlooked here however is that the 2.0 in ESCO 2.0 is first an indicator that this is truly a next generation business model. Central to this model however is also the deployment of next generation technologies. ESCO 2.0 will provide a mechanism to achieve Smart Buildings, and with the Energy Techno-Strategies deploy by local, and cloud based technology, the building with be an energy profit center by participating in both efficiency and the electricity markets. Quite simply as shown here ESCO 2.0 will be made up of Smart buildings that use energy in Clean, efficient and cost effective ways and are therefore Green buildings, but more importantly they are green in the environmental sense, as well as in the economic sense. Those buildings that integrate more functionality in will benefit from more robust the participation. ESCO 1.0 Buildings often overlooked the Smart Clean Tech implementation, but 2.0 will start with commissioned, effectively operated BAS, electric sub-metering, dashboard technology to visualize building performance and analytics to evaluate performance over time and develop benchmarks for comparison. Buildings enabled like this can participate in demand response (DR) immediately by implementing technology to receive electronic “event notifications”, via the OpenADR standard, when demand response events are called. The building then reacts to that event by modifying equipment operation to reduce an agreed upon number of KW. Programs vary in the amount of notice that customers receive, usually “day ahead”, “day of” or “10 minute” notice. Programs also vary in the amount of money paid for participation but customers typically receive payments between $50 and $300 per KW. For example, a 200 KW enrollment would net an annual payment between $10,000 and $60,000. With most programs a customer gets paid whether an event is called or not, and in California the utilities will even pay to install the technology. That all sounds pretty good, but it is just the beginning. This same Smart Grid/DR technology can be used to enable customers to sell electricity, they agree not to use, back to electric markets. We call this “day trading for energy”, and it gives customers another way to leverage financial value from Smart Grid. Adding this income to the Arbitrage mix will create those larger projects.
At first building
owners may think this is too complicated and maybe it’s not worth
it. The same could have been said of many technologies now widely
used, when they were first introduced. That could also be said of
green building recognition systems that have become the norm.
Even more compelling, customers that leverage these technologies and
programs effectively, can literally spin the meter backwards,
while at the same time leveraging third-party capital and make debt
service with REC payments from the utility and cost reduction on energy
bills while optimizing building performance and tenant comfort.
The ideal scenario is when customers go further and expand building
technologies to include; energy storage: thermal or battery, onsite
generation, or what are now called “microgrids”. The idea is to
take the renewed challenges many parts of the country are facing with
electricity reliability, and apply entrepreneurship to turn buildings
into profit centers for energy. Demand Response (DR) has
gotten a great deal of traction and is paying dividends for many
building owners, but the next step is to insulate the tenants from any
inconvenience that might be caused by DR. This is done by
leveraging automation systems to pre-cool for example, focusing
strategies on shutting down nonessential equipment, and leveraging
onsite generation, but numerous other options exist. Using
advanced DR and OpenADR based technology, owners can also aggregate
across multiple buildings and Opt In or Opt Out based on what is going
on in the building. Owners. The picture here comes from the
Electric Power Research Institutes “Green Grid” report and begins to
show the myriad technologies that are being applied to any size
building. The challenge in today’s economy is finding ways to
fund these technologies and ESCO 2.0 could be the answer. Equally
exciting is that owners can leverage the intelligence deployed in these
systems to make performance repeatable, and to apply analytics that
make it possible to evaluate the project in real time, not just once a
year. All of these ideas mean that ESCO 2.0 amounts to free money
and no one can afford to turn that down in this economy.
About the Authors
J. “Jack” Mc Gowan, CEM
Jack McGowan is President of Energy Control Inc. (ECI), an OpTerra Energy Group company and is Chairman Emeritus of the U.S. Department of Energy GridWise Architecture Council and Ambassador for the OpenADR Alliance for Demand Response. He is on the Galvin Electricity Initiative Team of Leaders and was Founding Co-Chair of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Building to Grid Working Group. McGowan is working with ESCO 2.0, Demand Response and Smart Grid Projects across the US. The Association of Energy Engineers admitted him to the “International Energy Managers Hall of Fame” in 2003 and named him “International Energy Professional of the Year” in 1997. ECI won a 2008 American Business Award sponsored by Dow Jones and the Wall Street Journal as Best Overall Company in the U.S. with less than 100 employees. Mc Gowan is an author with 5 books on Fairmont Press and Prentice Hall and over 200 articles. He also sits on the Technical Advisory Board of Engineered Systems and is a Contributing Editor with www.automatedbuildings.com.
Leighton J. Wolffe
Leighton Wolffe is
the Principal of Wolffe Technology Group LLC, an independent consulting
organization providing strategic business development, market research,
and technology assessment services. WTG serves the facility industry as
an owners advocate for Federal and State Agencies, health care
institutions, universities, corporate real estate, and high tech
WTG works with facility owners to develop and manage portfolio wide energy and capital upgrade projects utilizing new technologies, products and services through traditional and innovative financing models and energy market programs.
As a research and development firm, WTG provides investors and companies with perspectives on emerging market trends, technology applications, business models and product design. WTG works with clients to establish and deploy successful strategic marketing and business development initiatives for their products and services into existing and new markets.
Wolffe began his
career in facility operations in hospitals and universities, later
working with manufacturers of building automation systems, and more
recently with energy companies and hi-tech startups to develop new and
innovative products and software applications. He has authored numerous
articles on evolving energy trends, serves on technology advisory
boards, is a featured speaker at industry events and is active in all
US competitive energy markets.
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_design User-centered design
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